• ERCC6L2 disease causes bone marrow failure requiring timely stem cell transplantation before progressing to a high-risk myeloid malignancy.

  • Frequent somatic TP53 mutation screening and bone marrow examinations are essential in the surveillance of ERCC6L2 patients.

Biallelic germline ERCC6L2 variants strongly predispose to bone marrow failure (BMF) and myeloid malignancies characterized by somatic TP53-mutated clones and erythroid predominance. We present a series of 52 subjects (35 families) with ERCC6L2 biallelic germline variants collected retrospectively in 11 centers globally, including follow-up of 1165 person-years. At initial investigations, 32 individuals were diagnosed with BMF and 15 with a hematological malignancy (HM). Subjects presented with 19 different variants across ERCC6L2, and we identified a founder mutation c.1424delT in the Finnish patients. The median age of subjects at baseline was 18 years (range 2-65). Changes in complete blood count (CBC) were mild despite severe bone marrow hypoplasia and somatic TP53 mutations, with no significant difference between subjects with or without (HM). Signs of a progressive disease were increasing TP53 variant allele frequency, dysplasia in megakaryocytes and/or erythroid lineage, and erythroid predominance in bone marrow morphology. The median age at onset of HM was 37.0 years (95% CI: 31.5-42.5; range 12-65). Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 95% (95% CI: 85-100) and 19% (95% CI: 0-39) for patients with BMF and HM, respectively. Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia with mutated TP53 undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation had a poor outcome: 3-year OS is 28% (95% CI: 0-61). Our results demonstrate the importance of early recognition and active surveillance of patients with biallelic germline ERCC6L2 variants.

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