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Authorship criteria

All authors listed in a manuscript submitted to Blood must have contributed substantially to the work. Upon submission of the manuscript, the corresponding author must indicate, in the online submission and in the Authorship section of the manuscript, the specific contribution of each author. An author may list more than one type of contribution and more than one author may have contributed to the same aspect of the work. The corresponding author assumes responsibility for obtaining permission from all coauthors for the submission of any/all version(s) of the manuscript and for any changes in authorship.
Examples of appropriate designations include:

  • designed research
  • performed research
  • contributed vital new reagents or analytical tools
  • collected data
  • analyzed and interpreted data
  • performed statistical analysis
  • wrote the manuscript

If a manuscript reports on the results of a clinical trial run by a study group or collaborative clinical trials network, those members who meet criteria for authorship should be listed individually in the byline. For studies with a large number of authors, the journal reserves the right to request creation of a study group before publication. The corresponding author may be contacted by the Blood office in such cases. In your correspondence, please clearly define the role of each author according to Blood’s criteria.

If authorship is attributed to a group listed as author (e.g., only the group name is in the byline or in addition to one or more individual authors), all members of the group must meet the full criteria and requirements for authorship as described above and they are acknowledged as authors in Medline. The group members who do not meet the formal authorship criteria listed above but who contributed materially as collaborators may be named in the Appendix and if the manuscript is accepted, their names will be listed in an online supplemental Appendix. The group members listed in Acknowledgments or in the Appendix are acknowledged as collaborators in Medline/PubMed.

All individuals share responsibility for any manuscript they coauthor. Some coauthors have responsibility for the entire manuscript as an accurate, verifiable report of the research. These include coauthors accountable for the conception or execution of the research reported in the paper, the integrity and analysis of the data, or the writing of the manuscript. Coauthors with specific, limited contributions to a paper are responsible for their contributions but may have only limited responsibility for other results. While not all coauthors may be familiar with all aspects of the research presented in the manuscript, all coauthors should have in place an appropriate process for reviewing the accuracy of the reported results. Each author should review and approve the manuscript before publication. The corresponding author is responsible for the integrity of the work as a whole.

For more information on this important topic, see the Authorship section in the CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications.

Policy regarding AI-generated images and text

Machine learning (ML)/artificial intelligence (AI) tools, such as ChatGPT, are not eligible for authorship. These tools may not be listed as an author on submissions to Blood journals and, to ensure that submissions to the journals remain confidential, these tools may not be used to write a review of a journal article. However, research that used ML/AI tools for data acquisition or analysis is eligible for submission. Submissions may include graphic outputs of ML/AI, but the role of ML/AI in creating the graphic must be specified in the legend. Text generated by AI may not be included.

Conflict of interest disclosure

ASH Conflict of Interest Policy
The American Society of Hematology (ASH) and Blood are committed to ensuring the integrity of all their activities. The conflict of interest disclosure policy for Blood contributors requires each author to disclose all relevant financial and other interests, regardless of amount or value, that might be construed as resulting in an actual, potential, or apparent conflict in one’s role as contributor to Blood.

At the time of submission to Blood, authors are required to disclose any potential conflict of interest, which may include one or more of the following: employment; consultancy within the past two years; ownership interests (including stock options) in a start-up company, the stock of which is not publicly traded; ownership interest (including stock options but excluding indirect investments through mutual funds and the like) in a publicly traded company; research funding; honoraria received directly from an entity; paid expert testimony within the past two years; any other potential financial relationship (e.g., holding a patent or receiving royalties); and/or membership on another entity’s Board of Directors or its advisory committees (whether for profit or not for profit).

Any involvement by pharmaceutical or medical device company employees or medical writers supported by a pharmaceutical or medical device company in the writing of an article must be clearly defined and disclosed in the Conflict-of-interest Disclosure section of the manuscript (if the individual is an author) or the Acknowledgments section (if the individual is not an author).

For Review, Perspective, How I Treat, Blood Spotlight, or Evidence-based Focused Review articles: Pharmaceutical or medical device company employees and medical writers supported by a pharmaceutical or medical device company are not permitted to have any role in writing these articles. Please direct any questions regarding this policy to the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list ALL pertinent commercial relationships in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgment section or in the Authorship section) and in the metadata of the online submission.

It is important to note that this policy and the disclosure statements will not be regarded as creating a presumption of impropriety in the existence of financial interests or other relationships of a commercial nature. Instead Blood’s purpose is to inform its editors, reviewers, and readers of the existence of financial relationships pertinent to the article in the interest of full transparency in the peer review and publication processes.

During the peer review process any conflicts of interest will be disclosed only to editors and reviewers, who will keep them confidential. If the paper is accepted for publication in Blood, all disclosures, including statements of no conflict of interest, will appear in the First Edition, print, and final online versions of the article, in the Authorship section.

Upon acceptance, all authors are asked to sign their electronic copyright transfer using eJournalPress, which is available to all authors upon successful initial submission and requires authors to confirm that any relevant conflicts of interest are disclosed in the manuscript. An article will not be prepublished or otherwise published in the journal until all signatures are received.


Blood accepts only manuscripts that describe original work. Special cases regarding manuscripts expanding upon meeting abstracts and manuscripts with preprints are listed below. Copies of existing manuscripts with overlapping or duplicated material should be submitted together with the manuscript as supplemental data files so that the Editors can judge the originality of the material and its suitability for publication. Submission of duplicate content, already published elsewhere, will be considered a breach of ethical conduct and will trigger severe consequences. See also section III. D. “Overlapping Publications” of the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

Manuscripts related to published meeting abstracts

Manuscripts containing material that was previously presented as a digital poster presented in a conference or meeting with an online poster repository or videotaped will be considered for publication in Blood if significant new information is included.

Manuscripts with a preprint

Public release of the manuscript as a preprint before or during submission is allowed under these provisions:

  • Authors must retain copyright for the manuscript so that it may be transferred to the American Society of Hematology if the manuscript is accepted, per the journal’s copyright policy.
  • The preprint cannot be updated while the manuscript is under review and cannot be updated if it is accepted for publication in Blood.
  • The publication of the manuscript as a preprint, as well as public comments or coverage about that preprint, will be considered in the evaluation of the manuscript's impact.
  • Publication of any related preprints must be noted in the cover letter for the submission and PDFs of those preprints must be included in the submission as supplemental files.
  • Because of the potential impact on patient care, preprints of a clinical nature are discouraged but will be considered.

Principles for publication of medical research involving human subjects

All studies that involve human subjects must abide by the rules of the appropriate institutional review board (or equivalent organization) of the institution in which the research was conducted and by the tenets of the World Medical Association’s most recently revised Declaration of Helsinki. A statement regarding ethical approval and Helsinki compliance must be included in the Methods section of the paper.

Published studies that involve human subjects should not provide subjects’ identifying information (e.g., names, true initials, recognizable images) unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or the patient’s parent/guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. If your study requires the appropriate written consent, please send a statement to affirming that you possess the patient’s written consent. See the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals for further information.

All studies using animals should follow the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting in vivo experiments in animal research. A statement regarding institutional animal care and use committee approval (or equivalent) must be included in the Methods section of the paper.

Data sharing, distribution of reagents, and compound structure disclosure

Data sharing

Blood supports the efforts of the National Academy of Sciences to encourage open sharing of publication-related data. As a condition of publication in Blood, authors must make renewable materials, datasets, and protocols available to other investigators without unreasonable restrictions. Blood adheres to the belief that authors should include in their publications the data, algorithms, or other information that are integral to the publication or make it freely and readily accessible. Authors should use public repositories for data whenever possible and make patented material available under a license for research use.

All original research articles must include a data sharing statement at the end of the Materials and Methods section. This statement should describe how readers may access the data, whether that is through contacting the authors or accessing a public database. For more details, please see the data sharing statement section of the Manuscript Preparation page.

Distribution of reagents

Blood policy requires that any readily renewable resources mentioned in a journal article and not already obtainable from commercial sources be made available to all qualified investigators in the field. The policy stems from the principle that authenticity requires reproducibility. Publication in Blood constitutes de facto acceptance of this policy by the authors. Included are reagents that can be easily provided; specifically, nucleic acid sequences, cDNA and genomic clones, cell lines, and monoclonal antibody clones. Small amounts (sufficient for the replication of any in vitro work reported) of novel protein reagents are also considered transferable.

Although the Editors appreciate that many of the reagents mentioned in Blood may be proprietary or unique, neither condition is considered adequate grounds for deviation from this policy. Suitable material-transfer agreements can be drawn up between the provider and the requester; if a reasonable request is turned down, the corresponding author will be held accountable. The consequence for continuing noncompliance will be refusal of Blood to publish articles from the corresponding author for the following three years.

Disclosure of compound structure

Authors must provide the specific chemical structure(s) of synthetic compounds either in the manuscript or through a Web link to a publicly available source. For natural products, the chemical structure must be similarly provided if it is known. If it is not known, adequate information on the source and composition must be provided to identify the compound uniquely.

Deposition into public databases

Datasets must be accessible by reviewers and editors at the time of submission and must be publically available as of the date of publication, at which point Blood requires that the following types of datasets be made available via community-endorsed platforms, such as those listed below. Microarray data must be MIAME-compliant, as described at the FGED web site specifying microarray standards. Accession numbers must be supplied parenthetically at a relevant location in text. As new technologies are developed, the journal reserves the right to request full dataset access as a condition of publication.

DNA/RNA gene sequences and high throughput mRNA, miRNA and other related datasets

Data Type Suggested Databases

DNA/RNA sequencing

NCBI Genbank

EMBL-EBI European Nucleotide Archive

Raw sequence reads

NCBI Sequence Read Archive

High-throughput datasets (e.g., mRNA gene expression microarrays, RNAseq, miRNA arrays, ChIP-chip arrays, CGH, SNP arrays)

NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus

EMBL-EBI ArrayExpress

Protein sequences




ISB PeptideAtlas

Protein interaction

Chemical compound screening and assay

IMEx Consortium

NCBI PubChem

HeLa Cell Whole Genome Sequence Data Policy

Blood supports the policy on the access and research use of HeLa cell whole genome data. The policy was developed as a result of an agreement between the NIH and Henrietta Lacks’ surviving family members and is outlined in the HeLa Genome Data Use Agreement, as well as the NIH Guide notices for researchers who submit HeLa data to the NIH and investigators who use these data (NIH NOT-OD-13-099 and NIH NOT-OD-14-080).

The NIH’s policy for HeLa cell whole genome data was designed as a solution to a very unique situation of an identified cell line and is not a precedent for submission and use of de-identified human genomic data.

Under the policy, researchers who generate HeLa cell whole genome sequence data from DNA or RNA are expected to submit the data to the NIH database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Investigators who wish to use the dbGaP HeLa data for research purposes must request the data from the NIH and, if the use is found to be consistent with the HeLa Genome Data Use Agreement, access will be granted. Researchers who submit HeLa data are also expected to follow the same access request process as secondary users of the data to ensure that all uses are consistent with the HeLa Genome Data Use Agreement. Further, we ask researchers who publish their findings to include an acknowledgement of the contributions of Henrietta Lacks and her family.

Although the NIH policy applies to NIH-funded investigators, we are encouraging non-NIH-funded investigators to adhere to this policy as well. The investigators, regardless of funding source, who publish scientific findings involving the generation and/or use of HeLa cell whole genome sequence data, are encouraged to include a statement acknowledging the contributions of Henrietta Lacks and her family and affirming that the NIH has approved their use of these data (see the link to the acknowledgement statement above, provided by the NIH).

Clinical trial reporting and registry

Blood welcomes submission of manuscripts reporting on clinical trials whether phase 1, 2, 3 or 4. Reports must include the clinical trial protocol, which entails a full description of the study design, patient population, methodology and conduct; the statistical analysis plan (SAP) is highly encouraged but not required. In all cases, the report will undergo peer review and will be evaluated for technical merit, novelty, clinical and scientific impact, and other measures to determine suitability for publication. Fast- track peer review is offered for clinical trial studies that deserve to be brought out to the public with maximum expediency. The full scope of reporting clinical trials in Blood is found in the section below.

As defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (, a clinical trial is ‘any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention, with or without concurrent comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome’.

Blood follows the trial registration policy of the ICMJE and considers only trials that have been registered before submission, and before the onset of patient enrollment. Acceptable registries must be ICMJE-approved (see more information in the section below).

For authors reporting phase II and phase III randomized controlled trials it is recommended to consult the CONSORT Statement and Checklist to facilitate the complete and transparent reporting of trial findings. In addition, including a Patient Flow Diagram in the manuscript is recommended for randomized studies.

Registration number and name of the trial registry must be provided at the end of the article abstract.

Scope of clinical trial reporting

Phase 1 studies are welcome in Blood provided the results are sufficiently novel, clinically or scientifically significant and of high impact to merit publication in Blood. Criteria that may determine suitability for publication include the following:

  • First-in-class molecules with important mechanistic information emerging from the study.
  • Safety information that is novel and important for patient care.
  • Important dosing, pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic information.
  • Unexpected efficacy for the patient population with a novel agent or a novel combination of agents.
  • Ground-breaking information about the biology of the disease in question, including biomarker development, or about the mechanistic activity of a particular drug.

In all cases, phase 1 studies should have been completed and should have met the objectives based on the planned study design before they can be considered for publication.

Phase 2 studies are acceptable for publication with the following guidelines:

  • Results of a completed phase 2 study with proper design and sample size (as delineated in the statistical section) to answer an important clinical or biological question.
  • An interim analysis may be considered provided this is a planned interim analysis according to the design of the study and the results merit publication. This may include an unexpected or high level of efficacy, important safety information that may impact the use of the agent(s) in question, or important biologic information learned from the study at the time the report is being proposed.
  • Single-arm, uncontrolled studies can be considered provided the results are significant enough on their own (based on efficacy, safety or translational information). When historical cohorts are used for analysis, the statistical and scientific validity and design of such a comparison should be clearly described.

Phase 3 studies are welcome in Blood with the following guidelines:

  • The results are presented after completion of the study as planned according to the statistical design of the protocol.
  • Studies that are terminated early are acceptable for publication if a proper justification is provided for the early termination. Such justification may include a decision by a Data Safety Monitoring Board or regulatory authority. In these cases, this information should be added to the submission to support publication.
  • Interim analyses are generally only acceptable when planned according to the statistical design of the trial and provided there is important new information generated that warrants release of early data. Proper description and justification of such scenarios needs to be included, and the report cannot represent only a subset analysis.

Phase 4 studies may be accepted for publication in Blood if they meet the following criteria:

  • They provide important efficacy and/or safety information and are not merely confirmatory but provide important new insight into the disease and/or the treatment.
  • They are properly designed and conducted in a prospective manner.
  • Studies that provide important new data pertaining to survivorship are welcome.

Follow-up reports of previously published studies can be submitted to Blood when the follow-up report provides additional new information not previously available. This may include the following:

  • Significant additional follow-up on a trial of a novel agent or combination of agents where the additional information is valuable to assess issues such as duration of response, survival, safety, etc. For a follow-up report to be acceptable, there has to be either a significant change in the efficacy or safety information, or it has to include clinically relevant prolonged follow-up information regarding response duration or survival as compared to any prior publication.
  • Long-term follow-up data that may provide valuable survivorship information (e.g., late complications, long-term survival, etc) or new insights into the disease or the drug(s).

In accordance with the guidelines published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Blood requires, as a condition of consideration for publication, that all clinical trials be registered in or in any of the primary registers that participate the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP) or in EudraCT. Registration in a partner register only is insufficient. Trials must be registered at or before the onset of patient enrollment.

The ICMJE and Blood implement the WHO definition of clinical trials for all trials that began enrollment on or after July 1, 2008 . This definition states that a clinical trial is "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes."

Following ICMJE, Blood will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which the primary registration resides to be previous publication if the results are presented in the form of a brief (< 500 words), structured abstract or table.

For more information, see the ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.


Guidelines for stem cell research

Research with embryonic stem cells should adhere to the guidelines established by the National Academy of Sciences, as published in the National Academy Press.

Open access options for authors

The American Society of Hematology supports free access to Blood on the broadest possible basis, although ASH and Blood cannot adopt or support a publishing model that is not economically sustainable over a long horizon. Blood maintains a 12-month access embargo to non-subscribers while offering an inexpensive pay-per-view option. All content older than 12 months is available for free online. In addition, Blood ensures that patients looking for pertinent information can access any article without charge by contacting the journal.

Any author may pay a fee to publish their paper open access, as described in the ”Public access option” section of the Fee Information page.

Submission of NIH-funded accepted manuscripts to PubMed Central

Blood and the American Society of Hematology (ASH) signed an agreement with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that creates a straightforward way for authors to comply with NIH policy regarding public access to biomedical research. As a result of this agreement, Blood authors who publish NIH-funded articles (May 2005 – Present) have no obligation to submit manuscripts to the NIH archive because Blood will do this on their behalf.

To ensure that NIH-funded manuscripts are correctly identified during submission, we request that authors use full titles and/or full acronyms when referring to NIH funding. Please also note that the corresponding author is responsible for disclosing NIH funding for all coauthors.

Press embargo policy

Blood manuscripts that are accepted and prepublished in Blood First Edition are considered to be formally published on the date of the article’s appearance on the Blood First Edition website. There is no press embargo of an article once it has been prepublished. Any embargo will occur only upon an author’s request and only prior to prepublication.

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